Emigrants from Dormitz
- Emigration from Oberfranken in the 19th Century

- History of Dormitz

If you are a descendant of one of these migrants, please send me an e-mail and let me know what happened to them.

Beck, (K9/1 Nr. 2676), (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV)
Brandis, (K9/1 Nr. 2661),(K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ II)
Dorn, Anna, (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Dorn, Margarethe, to Linz (K9/1 Nr. 2722)
Dresel, Elisabetha (K9/1 Nr. 2764),(K3/A1 2326/IV)
Eisenbrand, Babette
(K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Eisenbrand, Henriette
(K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Eisenbrand, Jette, Juda, Isaias (K9/1 Nr. 2829)
Förtsch, Michael to Weimar (K9/1 Nr. 2847)
Frank, Friederika, (K9/1 Nr. 3920)
Friedrich, Anna (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV)
Fritzner, Maria Margarethe (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Frohmann, Fanny (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Greif, Konrad (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Häfner, Georg (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV)
Häfner, Johann (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV) (K9/1 Nr. 3005)
Hofmeyer, Simon (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ II) (K9/1 Nr. 2956)
Hofmeyer, Sofie (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV) (K9/1 Nr. 3001)
Hollsteiner, family (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ II) (K9/1 Nr. 2954)
Hollsteiner, Dorothea (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Holzmann, Eberhard (K9/1 Nr. 3183 & Nr.3187)
Holtzmann, Johann
(K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Knetzger, family (K9/1 Nr. 3268)
Lehmeier, family (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ II)
Loevi, Karoline (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV), (K9/1 Nr. 3162)
Männlein, Sigmund (K9/1 Nr. 3214)
Minderlein, Barbara (K9/1 Nr. 3196), (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ II)
Mirsberger, Margarethe (K9/1 Nr. 3205)
Nägel, Georg (K9/1 Nr. 3260)
Nepf, Paul (K9/1 Nr. 3774)

Poser, Katharina (K9/1 Nr. 3785), (K3/ A1 Nr. 2318/ I)
Priester, Salomon (K9/1 Nr. 3326),(K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ II)
Priester, Max (K9/1 Nr. 3346)
Priester, Josef (K9/1 Nr. 3784), (K3/ A1 Nr. 2318/ I)
Rehm, Anna (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Regenfuss, Georg (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Regenfuss, Jakob (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Rosenheimer, Max (K9/ 1 Nr. 3369)
, (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ III)
Rosenheimer, David (K9/ 1 Nr. 3792)
, (K3/ A1 Nr. 2307/ III)
Rosenheimer, David Max (K9/ 1 Nr. 3796)
, (K3/ A1 Nr. 2318/ I)
, Kar. (K9/1 Nr. 3147)
Schmidt, Joh. (K9/1 Nr. 3826)
Schramm, Georg & Margarethe (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Springer, Elkan (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Stirnweiß, Elisabeth (K9/1 Nr. 3485)
, (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV)
Striegel, family (K9/1 Nr. 3456)
(K9/1 Nr. 3584)
Trummer , Margarethe (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I)
Uhlfeld, sisters (K9/1 Nr. 3599)
Uhlfelder, Herrmann
(K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV)
Uhlfelder, Louis
(K3/ A1 Nr. 2318/ I), to Italy
Uhlfeld, Marianne (K9/1 Nr. 3600)
, (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV)
Wiegärtner, Margaretha (K9/1 Nr. 2806), (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ II)
Wiegärtner, Ursula (K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ IV) mit Kind Johann Georg
Wild, Philip (K3/ A1 Nr. 2318/ I)


Unless otherwise stated all the information were taken from emigration documents which are kept in the Staatsarchiv Bamberg (StABa) /5/.
In the brackets you will find the corresponding reference numbers.

Special thanks to John J. Knetzger/ Wisconsin for reviewing and correcting this page.


Dorn, Margaretha emigration in 1829
She wants to follow Johann Stoffels from Linz near Koblenz/ Germany, who promises to marry her.


Official documented emigration from Dormitz to North America begins in 1840.
In the summer of 1839 a group of young men of this region, including Georg Regenfuss of Dormitz, returns from a "reconnaissance" journey to North America (see Johann Mehl). Their reports certainly encouraged others to go to America.


Eisenbrand, Henriette, age 28
a sister and two brothers follow in 1847

Frohmann, Fanny, age 22

Dorn, Anna, age 25

Hollsteiner, Dorothea, age 23
three brothers and sisters follow in 1848

They jointly apply for emigration on May 26, 1840

They intend to visit relatives in North America via Hamburg

  The widower Georg Schramm, day laborer, and his daughter Margaretha apply for emigration in 1841.
  Eisenbrand, Babette, bachelor girl, 1841 (a sister and two brothers follow in 1847)  
  Greif, Konrad, farmer son, 1841  
  Anna Rehm, daughter of a peasant (Köblerstochter), bachelor girl, 1841  

Trumer, Margaretha, 1841


Holtzmann, Johann, farmer son, 1841

Springer, Elkan, butcher, 1841  
Fritzner, Maria Margarethe applies on June 28, 1843. Her father is Henry Fritzner.
She is 33 years old, owns 275 fl. and wants to work as a maid in North America.
The migration of the four families Johann Knetzger (1842), Georg Regenfuss (1843), Jacob Regenfuss (1843), Eberhard Holzmann (1843) and the bachelor Johann Mehl (1844) is a nice example of a "group migration" or "chain migration".
Johann Knetzger's sister Eva married Georg Regenfuss. Johann Mehl is a cousin of Georg and Jacob Regenfuss.
On April 7, 1838 Georg Regenfuss begins a journey to North America and returns to Dormitz on June 19, 1839. His brother Jakob and his brother-in-law Johann Knetzger sent him there in order to do inquiries "on the spot". What he reported when he came back, made them all the more determined to go to North America. Most likely Georg traveled together with other young men from the region (see note Johann Mehl).
On November 28, 1839 Georg Regenfuss, Jacob Regenfuss and Johann Knetzger appear in Gräfenberg before the district court an say that they want emigrate with their families in spring 1840.
On February 8, 1840 the district judge Grötsch accompanied by an assistant visits the three families Knetzger and Regenfuss in Dormitz in their homes and records their applications for emigration to North America
Their intention to leave Bavaria is made public on February 9, 18 and 22, 1840 on the presentation board at the district court and in two newspapers. If there were any obligations, they had to be claimed within the next four weeks.

The Knetzger familiy is the first to leave Dormitz:
  Knetzger log house
Germantown, Wisconsin
The Knetzger family immigrated to America in 1842, purchasing land for $1.25 per acre
and settling in Germantown.
With a rich supply of timber in this area the two-story log house was built 1860-1861. Trees were felled and used to build the home and the land was cleared for crops
and diary farming.
Several additions to the original log house were built through the years. Total restoration of the house was completed in 1988 by the Lamm family, ...
Landmarks Commission
Washington County Wisconsin /9/
  - Johann Knetzger, * Mar 20, 1801
- Katharina née Hofmann, *Jan 25, 1810
- Sebastian, * Oct 18, 1831 (see photo)
- Johann Georg,* Apr 21, 1835
- Leonhard, * Sep 21.1839
They landed aboard the ship Mozart in New York on July 1, 1842, and settled in Germantown, Wisconsin, a German settlement just northwest of Milwaukee. /9/
A descendant chart of the family can be found here.
Johann Knetzger bought land for Jakob Regenfus in Germantown on Nov 20, 1842./9/
photo provided by Jim Schroeder
Jacob Regenfuss, * Sep 16, 1792, died Jun 07, 1858 in Wisconsin
Buried at St. Boniface Catholic Cemetery, Germantown, WI
and his children:
- Barbara, *Aug 4, 1825, died Feb 17, 1890 (see descendents)
- Johann, * Aug 9, 1827 (see gravestone)
- Conrad, * Oct 10, 1829
- Elisabetha, * Aug 21, 1831
come to Germantown/ WI in 1843.
His wife Cunigunda, née Deinlein, * Sep 18, 1795 severely suffers from articular gout: she cannot walk alone and it is impossible for her to travel to America. So, she and their oldest daughter Kunigunda, * Oct 10, 1821 remain behind in Dormitz.
Married #2 wife, Barbara Minderlein on Nov 29, 1845
Had 2 more children, Margaretha + Anna by second wife, possibly George and Frederick also. (source: Kathy H. Neuburg)

Georg Regenfuss, *29.8.1809, (see gravestone)
his wife Eva Margaretha, née Knetzger *10.3.1811,
sister of Johann Knetzger, and their children:
- Mathäus, *15.5.1834
- Jacob, *12.10.1836
- Johannes, *7.5.1840
In a document from March 22, 1843 he states, that his plans were delayed because of several actions were pending. For example, Johann Regenfuss and Margarthe Regenfuss from Ebersbach claim, that Georg owes them 200 and 100 fl.
He refers to the letter from Johann Knetzger which stated that Johann had bought 440 acres of land for him and his brother.

Holzmann, Eberhard *5.1.1786, his wife Rosina Fritzner died on 23.6.1837 On January 20, 1840 he appears before the district court and says that he wants to go to North America. The district judge Grötsch sends him back in order to think it over because of his age and the six young children. But on January 24, 1840 he repeats that he intends to emigrate.
On February 24, 1840 he appears before the district judge together with his three oldest children
A son of his deceased sister Barbara Schramm of Neunkirchen, Johann Schramm, already lives in North America. His remaining nearest relatives intend to emigrate to North America, too. In his file there is a note, dating from September 1, 1840, that his application is no longer pushed ahead.
He sells his property Dormitz No.22 to Georg Nägel from Langensendelbach for 4000 fl in 1843.
Intends to go to North America via Bremen - New York on August 1, 1843
his children:
- Maria Margarethe, * 20.10.1821
- Barbara, * 21.10.1823
- Anna, * 8.5.1825
- Margaretha, * 13.4.1828
- Anna Margaretha, * 6.6.1832
- Katharina, * 3.5.1835
Maria Margarethe marries John Zoellner
Margaretha marries George Wilhelm
on October 23, 1851 in Germantown, Washingotn Co., WI. and dies on December 28, 1909 in Marshfield, Wood Co., WI. /link/
Anna Margaretha marries Henry Breckheimer and dies on 31 January 1925, Kiel, Manitowoc Co., WI. /link/

Johann Mehl
(* Feb 25,1818) from the neighbouring village Steinbach follows in 1844. He is a single farmer's son, his parents are dead.
A document dating from April 4, 1844 says that he "traveled 4 years ago in the company of several others from this region to North America and wants to settle near Milwaukee" (StABa K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I ).
The single farm hand Joseph Regenfuss from Marloffstein applies for emigration in 1843. He is not a brother of Jacob and Georg R.
(StABa K3/ A1 Nr. 2326/ I ).
George and Jacob Regenfuss settled in the west portion of Germantown and in the east portion of Richfield.
Johann Knetzger settled just to the east of the Regenfuss group in Germantown only.
Eberhard Holzmann and Johann Mehl acquired land in Germantown /9/
In contrast to the average emigrant, these migrants were rather wealthy:
Johann Knetzger sold his property in Dormitz No.13 on Feb 2, 1842 for 4500 fl. He gets another 500 fl. for his furnishings.
Georg Regenfus sold his property in Dormitz on June 6, 1843 for 5800 fl.
Jakob Regenfus sold his property in Dormitz No. 27 on Aug 4, 1843 for 3000 fl.
  Sophia Hofmeyer
Gräfenberg, June 20, 1846: she wants to embark in Bremen on July 1 (K3/ A1 2326/ IV)

Eisenbrand, application for emigration on June 14, 1847
- Jette, * Dec 27, 1809
- Juda, * Feb 2, 1813, weaver
- Isaias, * Dec 7, 1821, tailor
Their mother Marianne died one year before, on June 2, 1846. Their father died on April 25, 1832.
Four brothers and sisters are already in North America:
Henriette (1840), Karoline (1844), Babette (1841) are in Philadelphia, Löb/ Ludwig (1843) lives in Ohio
In October 1844 Ludwig, Henriette, Karolina and Babette appoint their brother Juda "our lawful
attorney for us and in our names to bargain sell and convey in fee simple by deed of general warrantee for such price upon such terms of ..." This was notarized by Edward Hurst in Philadelphia and John S. Patterson and the Justice of the Peace Adam Stewart in Steubenville, County of Jefferson, State of Ohio.



16.8.1848: Karoline (* Nov 11, 1812), Lehmann (* May 10, 1818) and Kattong (* Sept 18, 1817) Hollsteiner apply for emigration.
Father Emmanuel died 18 years ago, their mother Marianne died on Sept 28, 1839.
Four brothers and sisters already went to North America: Sophie (*March 23, 1814), Dorothea (* June 8, 1816), Babette (* Dec 9, 1820) and Meier (*Sept 6, 1828). The three sisters lived in Cincinnati. Meier had left Bavaria without permission and had to pay a fine.
10.9.1848: embarkation shall be on Sept 30, and they have to leave Dormitz at least 10 days before, so they ask for a speeding-up of the procedure.
The ship' s name is Euclid, the name of the Captain is Bainbridge.

In the Judenmatrikel we find (according to /11/):
Emanuel Hollsteiner, born in 1784, profession "Schnittwarenhändler"


  Simon Hofmeier, born January 13, 1829 receives his permission for emigration on August 6, 1849


The widow Karolina Lehmeier and eight children, August 1849
Her husband died two years ago, five of her children already live in the United States. Now the three remaining daughters and Karolina want to follow them to North America.


Sigmund Männlein, * Jan 29, 1833, son of the butcher Moses Männlein, who has six children.
Several relatives already live in Baltimore.
He receives his permission on April 24, 1850.


Simon Brandis, born 30.07.1834, son of Jacob Brandis, emigration in 1850 (K9/ 1 Nr. 2661)
He wants to go to Cincinnati, where his brother Löb works as a floorman in a printing office. He gets the necessary money from his brothers Löb Brandis and Dr. Max Brandis (in total 175 fl.).
He applies for emigration on July 23, 1850, one week before he would have become 17. At the age of 17, young men were registered for the military service, at the age of 21 they had to serve. Between 17 and 21 emigration only was possible if a "replacement" was found or 800 fl. were paid./8.26/
Margaretha Wiegaertner, *Jan 18,1825, daughter of the day labourer Johann Wiegaertner and Ursula Wiegaertner, née Gengler.
She was born as an illegitimate child, but through the marriage of her parents, she became legitimized.
Brothers of her already live in Milwaukee (?), they will pick her up in New York.
Se receives his permission on June 2, 1851.


  Ursula Wiegaertner, born August 21, 1801, and her son Johann Georg, born August 22,1842
Ursula appears before the district court in Gräfenberg on June 30,1853. She's the widow of the Köbler (farmer with a small property) Johann Wiegaertner.
She wants to emigrate to New York, where her daughter Margaretha is living, who is doing well and has invited her mother and brother to come.
Has sold all property and wants to embark in Bremen on August 1, 1853.
Johann Wiegaertner died on January 27, 1851(?) at the age of 59. Together with Ursula, née Gengler (Gängler), he had three children:

- Margaretha, born Jan 18,1825
- Johann, born on Jul 17, 1827 (being a soldier in 1853)
- Johann Georg, born on August 22, 1842
  Barbara Beck, born 23.1.1817, roman catholic, daughter of the day labourer Georg Beck and his wife Margaretha, née Rahm, emigration after August 1853
She was single and appeared before the district court together with her brother Georg. She gave birth to an illegitimate child (died before 1853?).
Intended to go via Leipzig, Bremen, New York, owned 200 fl.
Her perspectives in Dormitz were bad, virtually no chances to marry and to have a family, and as the daughter of a day labourer she would always belong to the poor in the village. (K9/ 1 Nr. 2676).
Applies for emigration on August 11, 1853 (K3/ A1 2326/IV)
  Caroline Loevi, * May 23, 1840, daughter of the teacher Bernhard Loevi.
She wants to go to a sister of her step mother, Louise Kohn, in New York.
He receives his permission on May 19, 1857. (K9/ 1 Nr. 3162)
  Elisabetha Dresel, Elisabeth Stirnweis from Dormitz and Wolfgang and Konrad Seubert from Hetzles apply for emigration on Sept 3, 1857.
They want to embark in Bremen on September 15, 1857. (K3/ A1 2326/IV)

Salomon Priester, *10.07.1832. Father: the butcher Jandaph(?) Priester
He applies for emigration on May 30, 1851, wants to travel via Bremen to Philadelphia, he owns 300 fl.
Was trained as a merchant by Philipp Heilbronn in Fürth.
His reason to emigrate: There are already too many merchants and it's not possible for him to make his living.
Smallpox vaccination on March 20, 1833.

He went to school from his 6th to his 12th year and leaves the working day school on August 4, 1847.

He attended the Israelite religion school in Dormitz from his 6,5th to his 12,5th year until August 4, 1847.
He receives his permission on June 12, 1851.
Solomon Priester arrived in NY Sept 2, 1851 from Bremen /12/


Josef Priester, *9.6.1870
On Feb 17, 1887 in the presence of the mayor Leuthäuser from Dormitz, the butcher Max Priester and his wife Elise, née Feuchtwanger say that they give their permission to the emigration of their son Josef. Max and Josef both are merchants, Josef lives in Nürnberg.
He receives his permission on Oct 26, 1887.


Max Priester, * 10.9.1850
On Nov. 21, 1870 the merchant Simon Priester appears before the district court and says that his brother Max, who lives in North America for 5 years, now wants to emigrate officially.
Max receives the official, formal permission on Dec 24, 1870

Sixteen year old Max Priester's ship arrived in NY on Dec 20, 1866 from Bremen. Living in Plymouth Borough, Pennsylvania in 1870 /12/


In the "Judenmatrikel" we find (according to /11/):
- Joseph Prister ("Schnittwaren-Hausierhändler"), born in 1754 and his successor Jandoph Prister, butcher
- Jacob Prister, cattle-dealer, born in 1778 and his successor Bernhard Prister, born in 1817, bookbinder.
- Max Priester, butcher, born in 1833 as successor of Emanuel Hollsteiner, born in 1784.

Emanuel Uhlfelder, born 1819 in Dormitz married in NYC to Yetta Wasserman, Aug 5, 1846. /12/

Jette Uhlfelder, Arrival Date: 28 Aug 1854, Age: 16 5/12, Port of Departure: Bremen, Germany, Destination: New York, Place of Origin: Dormitz,
Ship Name: Leontine, Port of Arrival: New York

Uhlfelder Marianne, *26.2.1831 and Herrmann, *25.2.1825 (StABa K9/ 1 Nr. 3599)
On March 4, 1856 they appear before the district court in Gräfenberg and say that they want to emigrate to North America via Bremen/New York.
Three sisters are already living in America.
Herrmanns certificate of discharge from the military says that his was 5' 5" and had black hair, his was dismissed because he was too weak.
Together they own 1000 fl.
They receive their permission on April 4, 1856
They want to embark in Bremen on May 17, 1856 (K3/ A1 2326/ IV)

Uhlfelder Marianne
. (StABa K9/ 1 Nr. 3600)
One year later, on May 8, 1857, she appears again before the court, together with her father Joseph(?) Uhlfelder.
She gets the permission a second time on May 25, 1857.

Owners of house No. 11b ("das Uhlfeldergütlein"): Josef Uhlfelder takes it over from David Uhlfelder in 1831, Josef gives it later to his son Wolfgang /2/.
In 1837 Moses Männlein takes over No. 53a from his father-in-law David Uhlfelder /2/.
In 1815 David Uhlfelder and Heßlein Rothenfels buy No. 59. Later 59a belonged to Wolf Uhlfelder /2/.
In the "Judenmatrikel" from 1813 we find: the cattle-dealer David J. Uhlfeld, born in 1775, and his successor Joseph Uhlfeld (according to /11/).
Max Rosenheimer, *18.12.1833, parents: the farmer Meier Rosenheimer and Fanny (died in Jan 1852)
He applies for emigration on Dec 14 1852 and intends to leave Dormitz in spring 1853.
Smallpox vaccination on May 7, 1835.
He went to school from his 6th to his 12th year and leaves the working day school on May 1, 1846.
He owns 240 fl. His reason for emigration: He is not rich enough to have an own family and hopes to have a better chance in North America.
He receives his permission on Feb 10, 1853.
David Rosenheimer, *28.7.1856, parents: the merchant Meier Rosenheimer and Babette, née Goldberg
27.5.1870: he appears before the judge accompanied by his father, he wants to get a passport to go to North America
29.1.1873: Meier Rosenheimer says that his son David went to North America in 1870, now he officially applies for the permission to emigrate.

David Max Rosenheimer, *24.10.1871, parents: the merchant Max Rosenheimer and Retha, nèe Gutmann
He receives his permission on Sept 30, 1887.
In 1846 Klara Rosenheimer takes over the property No. 11a from her father Moses Rosenheimer. In 1864 this property belonged to Isack Bürger /2/.
In the "Judenmatrikel" from 1813 the cattle-dealer Joseph Loeb Rosenheim is mentioned (according to /11/).
  Louis Uhlfelder, born Feb 5, 1865, wants to emigrate to Italy. Application: Bayreuth, May 20, 1879. (K3 A1/ Nr.2318/ I)  
  Philip Wild, born on Jan 18, 1870.
Wants to leave Dormitz on Jul 15,1886

Philip stays in Germany and dies on 28.4.1945 in KZ Theresienstadt (according to /13/)
-> more about the Wild family
  Katharina Poser, born on May 16, 1865.
Applies for emigration on Jun 1, 1888

Paul Nepf, born June 2, 1867 in Neunkirchen, catholic
Wants to give up his Bavarian citizenship, because he lives as a horsera
dish trader in Vienna and wants the become Austrian citizen (March 6, 1909).
Address in Vienna: Salmgasse 12, Wien III
He writes a letter to his father, who is still living in Dormitz, and asks him to arrange
this for him.
His wife: Anna Kunigunda, nèe Burkard, was born in Kersbach on June 26, 1876. They married on May 20, 1896
Three children were born in Dormitz, more children in Vienna (not mentioned)
- Elisabeth, born on March 1, 1897

- Josef Paul, born on July 7, 1900
- Anna Kunigunda, born on Oct 2, 1901



/2/ Chronik des Dorfes Dormitz. Wilhelm Held, Brand 1967, 3. Edition1992, Editor: Gemeinde Dormitz

/4/ Auswanderungswesen in Bayern, G. Krieg, Sonderabdruck des Vereins für Socialpolitik, 52. Band, Leipzig 1898

/5/ Staatsarchiv Bamberg, Hainstr. 39, 96047 Bamberg, Germany

/6/ Wanderungsbewegungen in und aus Franken im 19. Jahrhundert. Klaus Guth. Jahrbuch für fränkische Landesforschung 49 (1989)

/7/ Fremdheitserwartung und Fremdheitserfahrung bei den deutschen Amerikaauswanderern im 19. Jahrhundert. Peter Assion. in Kulturkontakt, Kulturkonflikt/ herausgegeben von Ina-Maria Grevius. Frankfurt/ Main (1988)

/8/ Hintergründe der Auswanderung aus Oberfranken nach Nordamerika. Hans Schaub. Heimatbeilage zum Amtlichen Schulanzeiger des Regierungsbezirks Oberfranken. Bayreuth, Januar 1994, Nr. 206.

/9/ Private communication, John J. Knetzger of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A.; source: http://www.glorecords.blm.gov

/11/ 850 Jahre Dormitz 1142-1992, Martin Rehm, Dr. Ernst Rehm, 1992

/12/ Private communication, Sandi Goldsmith, Alpharetta/Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.

/13/ Private communication, Elizabeth Ida Posva, S. Paulo, Brazil